Free and clean solar
Most of the African continent on average receives 320-plus days per year of bright sunlight, giving solar power the potential to bring clean and free energy to virtually every part of Africa without costly large-scale grid infrastructure.
Sunlight distribution across Africa is relatively uniform, with more than 80 percent of the continent's landscape receiving almost 2000 kWh per square meter annually. A solar generating facility covering a mere 0.1% of the African land area would supply all the energy required by the entire African continent.
Hydro-electric, wind and solar power all derive their energy from the sun, which emits more energy in one second (3.827 × 1026 J) than is available in all of the fossil fuels present on earth (3.9 × 1022 J) and will potentially provide all of Africa's current and future energy needs.
Solar thermal technology uses giant mirrors to reflect sunlight onto water boilers, with the resultant steam turning turbines and creating clean and renewable electricity.
Curved mirrors are tilted toward the sun, focusing sunlight on tubes which run the length of the mirrors. Reflected sunlight heats a fluid flowing through the tubes and the hot fluid boils water in a conventional steam-turbine generator to produce electricity.